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Seoul Journal of Economics - Vol. 33 , No. 2

[ Article ]
Seoul Journal of Economics - Vol. 33, No. 2, pp.195-231
Abbreviation: SJE
ISSN: 1225-0279 (Print)
Print publication date 30 May 2020
Received 16 Jan 2019 Revised 03 Feb 2020 Accepted 07 Feb 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22905/sje2020.33.2.004

Social and Economic Transformation in Tanzania and South Korea: Ujamaa and Saemaul Undong in the 1970s Compared
Yong Yoon ; Robert Mudida
Yong Yoon, Corresponding Author, Faculty of Economics, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand, Tel: +66-2-218-6188 (yong.y@chula.ac.th)
Robert Mudida, Associate Professor and Director, Strathmore Institute for Public Policy and Governance, Strathmore University, Ole Sangale, Madaraka, P.O. Box 59857 – 00200, Nairobi, Kenya, Tel: +254-703-034-414 (rmudida@strathmore.edu)

JEL Classification: O35, O57, P10, P52, N95, N97


Abstract

Julius Nyerere and Park Chung-hee carried out ambitious and important social and economic reforms for rural development in the 1970s in Tanzania and South Korea, respectively. The reforms not only affected the livelihood of rural people but also had long-reaching impact on the entire nations. Despite the visionary and generally benevolent rulers’ policy initiatives, the economic results of the rural development programs in the two countries cannot be more different. This paper contrasts and explores the importance of the nature of the transformation strategy and processes, as brought about by differences in leadership as well as in political philosophies and developmental goals, as a possible explanation for the drastically different economic outcomes of Tanzania’s Ujamaa and South Korea’s Saemaul Undong.


Keywords: Tanzania, South Korea, Ujamaa; Saemaul Undong, Rural development, Social innovation, Economic transformation

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