Current Issue

Seoul Journal of Economics - Vol. 35 , No. 3

[ Article ]
Seoul Journal of Economics - Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 329-364
Abbreviation: SJE
ISSN: 1225-0279 (Print)
Print publication date 31 Aug 2021
Received 19 Oct 2020 Revised 14 Dec 2020 Accepted 06 Jan 2021

Innovative Factors Affecting the Diffusion of the New Nanotechnology Paradigm, 1983–2013
Alenka Guzmán ; Flor Brown ; Edgar Acatitla
Alenka Guzmán, Professor, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Mexico, Tel: 005255-55-5804-6404 (
Flor Brown, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Mexico, Tel: 005255-5068-3504 (
Edgar Acatitla, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico, Tel: 005255-3701-4651 (

JEL Classification: O33, O34


By examining innovative factors that could influence the diffusion of the new nanotechnology paradigm (NNP) across countries, we identify several innovative variables that relate positively to high nanotechnology diffusion across countries. In accordance with the Poisson count regression model based on the proposed nanotechnology patent data of the United States Patent and Trademark Office, we find that the lag time of nanotechnology knowledge diffusion, the size of research teams, the invention scope of each nanotechnology patent, and technological cooperation seem to affect the NNP, with the first variable having a massive effect. Our objective is to use patent microdata to contribute to empirical research on nanotechnology diffusion.

Keywords: Nanotechnologies, Diffusion, Innovative factors, United States Patent and Trademark Office patents

1. Acatitla, Edgar. Patrones de difusión de un nuevo paradigma tecnológico en países industrializados y emergentes. El caso de la nanotecnología, Tesis doctoral, Programa de Estudios Sociales, Línea Economía social, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa Mexico, 2016.
2. Afolabi, Richard O., and Yusuf, Esther O. “Nanotechnology and global energy demand: challenges and prospects for a paradigm shift in the oil and gas industry.” Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology 9 (No. 2 2019):1423-1441.
3. Akyildiz, Ian F., Brunetti, Fernando, and Blásquez, Cristina. “Nanonetworks: A new communication paradigm.” Computer Networks (No. 52 2008): 2260-2279.
4. Antonelli, Cristiano. Endogenous Innovation. The Economics of an Emergent System Property. Cheltenham, U.K. and Northampton, MA U.S.A.: Edgar Elgar, 2017.
5. Aono, Masakazu, Bando, Yoshio, and Ariga, Katsuhiko. “Nanoarchitectonics: Pioneering a New Paradigm for Nanotechnology in Materials Development.” Advanced Materials (No. 24 2012): 150-151.
6. Bertalanffy, Von, L. Teoría General de los Sistemas. Fundamentos, desarrollo y aplicaciones. México: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1968.
7. Bianco, Federica, and Venezia, Marica. “Features of R&D Teams and Innovation Performances of Sustainable Firms: Evidence from the Sustainable Pioneers in the IT Hardware Industry.” Sustainable 11 (No.17 2019): 1-19.
8. Breitzman Anthony, and Thomas, Patrik. “Inventor team size as a predictor of the future citation impact of patents.” Scientometrics (No.103 2015): 631–647.
9. Chakravarthy, Krishnan V., Boehm, Frank J., and Christo, Paul J. “Nanothecnology: A Promising New Paradigm for the control of Pain.” Pain Medicine 19 (No. 2 2018): 232-243.
10. Comin, Diego, and Mestieri, Marti. Technology Diffusion: Measurement, Causes, and Consequences. In P. Aghion and S.N. Durlauf (eds). Handbook of Economic Growth, 2014: 565-622.
11. Creszenzi, Riccardo, Filippetti, Andrea, and Lammarino, Simona. “Academic inventors: collaboration and proximity with industry.” The Journal of Technology Transfer (No. 42 2017): 730-762.
12. Criscuolo, Paola “Measuring knowledge flows among European and American multinationals: a patent citation analysis.” Paper presented at The Future of Innovation StudSies Conference, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, September 2001.
13. Davies, Stephen. The diffusion of Process Innovation, Cambridge. Cambridge University Press, 1979.
14. Dosi, Giovanni. “Technological Paradigms and Technological Trajectories: A Suggested Interpretation of the Determinants and Directions of Technical Change.” Research Policy 11 (No. 3 1982): 147-162.
15. Duguet, Emmanuel, and MacGarvie, Megan. “How Well do Patent Citations Measure Flows of Technology? Evidence from French Innovation Surveys.” Economics of Innovation & New Technology 14 (No. 5 2005): 375-393.
16. Freeman, Cristopher, and Pérez, Carlota. “Structural Crisis of Adjustmen: Business Cycles and Investment Behavior.” In Dosi Giovanni. et al., Technical Change and Economic Theory. London and New York: Pinter Publishers, 1988: 38-66.
17. Gay, Claudine, and Le Bas, Christian. “Uses Without too Many Abuses of Patent Citations or the Simple Economics of Patent Citations as a Measure of Value and Flows of Knowledge.” Economics of Innovation and New Technology 14 (No. 5 2005): 333-338.
18. Gay, Claudine, Le Bas, Christian, Patel, Pari., and Touach, K. “The Determinants of Patent Citations: An Empirical Analysis of French and British Patents in the US.” Economics of Innovation & New Technology 14 (No. 5 2005): 339-350.
19. Gomulka, Stanislaw. The theory of technological change and economic growth. London: Routledge, 1990.
20. Griliches, Zvi. “Hybrid Corn: An Exploration in the Economics of Technological Change.” Econometrica, 24 (No. 4 1957): 501-522.
21. Griliches, Zvi. “Hybrid Corn and the Economics of Innovation.” Science. (No. 132 1960): 275-280.
22. Griliches, Zvi. R&D, Patents, and Productivity. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1984.
23. Hall, Bronwyn. Innovation and diffusion. In Fagerberg, J. Mowery, D.C. and Nelson, R.R. (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Innovation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005: 459-484.
24. Hall Bronwyn, Jaffe, Adam, and Trajtenberg, Manuel. “Market Value and Patent Citations.” The RAND Journal of Economics 36 (No. 1 2005): 16-38.
25. Hanel, Petr, and Niosi Jorge. Evolutionary theories of technological diffusion and their policy implications. Annual meeting of EAEPE, Porto Portugal. November 2007. (Online)
26. He, Xiaojia, Deng, Hua, and Hwang, Huey-min. “The current application of nanotechnology in food and agriculture.” Journal of Food and Drugs Analysis 27 (No. 1 2019): 1-21.
27. Henderson, Rebecca, Jaffe, Adam B., and Trajtenberg, Manuel. “Patent Citations and the Geography of Knowledge Spillovers: A reassessment Comment.” American Economic Review 95 (No. 1 2005): 461-464.
28. Hilbe, J. M. Modeling Count Data. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.
29. Igami, Masatsura and Okazaki, Teruo. “Capturing Nanotechnology’s current state of Development via Analysis of Patents.” Working Papers 2007-04, OECD, 2007.
30. Jaffe, Adam B. “Technology Diffusion. Social Process Technology.” Emerging Trends in the Social Behavioral Sciences. May 15, 2015: 1-15.
31. Jaffe, Adam B., and Trajtenberg, Manuel. Patent, Citations, and Innovations. Cambridge, Massachusetts and London: The MIT Press Cambridge, 2002.
32. Jaffe, Adam B., and Trajtenberg, Manuel “International Knowledge Flows: Evidence from Patent Citations.” Economics of Innovation and New Technology 8 (No. 1-2 1999): 105-136.
33. Jaffe, Adam B., and De Rassenfosse, Gaétan. “Patent Citation Data in Social Science Research: Overview and Best Practice.” Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology 68 ( No. 6 2017): 1360-1374.
34. Jian, Shan, Gao, Qiang, Chen, Hsinchun, and Roco, Mihail C. “The roles of sharing, transfer, and public funding in nanotechnology knowledge-diffusion networks.” Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology 66 (No. 5 2015)
35. Kaur, Indu Pal, and Agrawal, Rumjhum. “Nanotechnology: A New Paradigm in Cosmetical.” Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation (No. 1 2007): 171-182.
36. Kim, Jinyoung, Lee, Sangjoon, and Marschke, Gerald. Impact of university scientists on innovation on nanotechnology. In Sanghoon Ahn., Bronwyn H. Hall and Keun Lee (eds) Intellectual Property for Economic Development. Cheltenhamn, U.K. and Northampton, U.S.: Edgar Elgar, 2014: 141-158.
37. Kroto, Harold. “Nanoscience and nanotechnology in the twenty-first century.” Drug Delivery and Translational Research 3 (No. 4 2013): 297-298.
38. Kwon, Swon, Lee, Jihong, and Lee, Sokbae. “International trends in technological progress: stylized facts from patent citations.” CEMMAP Working paper CWP16/14, 2014: 1-45.
39. Kuhn, Jeffrey, Younge, Kenneth, and Marco, Alan. “Patent citations reexamined.” RAND Journal of Economics 51 (No. 1 2020): 109-132.
40. Lai, P.C. “The Literature Review of Technology Adoption Models and Theories for the Novelty Technology.” Journal of Information Systems and Technology Management 4 (No. 1 2017): 21-38.
41. Lanjouw, Jean O., and Schankerman, Mark. “Patent Quality and Research Productivity: Measuring innovation with Multiple Indicators.” The Economic Journal 114 (No. 495 2004): 441-465.
42. Li, Xin, Chen, Hsinchun, Huang, Zan, and Roco, Mihail C. “Patent citation network in nanotechnology (1976–2004).” Journal of Nanoparticle Research (No. 9 2009): 337-352.
43. Liu, Xuan, Jiang, Shan, Chen, Hsinchun, Larson, Catherine A., and Roco, Mihail C.. “Modeling knowledge diffusion in scientific innovation networks: and institutional comparison between China and US with illustration for nanotechnology.” Scientometrics (September 2015).
44. Liu, Xuan, Kaza, Siddaharth, Zhang, Pengzhu, and Chen, Hsinchun. “Determining inventor status and its effect on knowledge diffusion: A study on nanotechnology literature from China, Russia, and India” Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology 62 (No. 6 2011): 1166-1176.
45. Lyshevski, Sergey E. Nano-and Micro-Electronical Systems. Fundamental of Nano – and Microengineering. Boca Raton, London, New York: CRC Press, 2001.
46. MacGarvie, Megan. “The Determinants of International Knowledge Diffusion as Measured by Patent Citations.” Economics Letters 87 (No. 1 2005): 121-126.
47. Mansfield, Edwin. “Technical Change and the Rate of Imitation.” Econometrica 29 (No. 4 1961): 741-766.
48. Messeni Petruzzelli, Antonio. “University-Industry R&D Collaborations: A Joint-Patents Analysis.” DRUID Summer Conference 2009 Paper. Copenhagen Business School, June 2009.
49. Nagaoka, Sadao, and Naotoshi, Tsukada. Assessing the effects of international collaboration on the invention process: some evidence from triadic patent data. In Sanghoon Ahn., Bronwyn H. Hall and Keun Lee (eds) Intellectual Property for Economic Development, Cheltenhamn, U.K. and Northampton, U.S.: Edgar Elgar, 2014: 159-179.
50. Nelson, Richard R., and Winter, Sidney. An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change, Cambridge M.A: Harvard University Press, 1982.
51. Neto, Beatriz H., Moreira De Souza, Jano, and De Oliveira, Jonice. Technological and Knowledge Diffusion Through Innovation Networks. In Chu, Samuel, Ritter, Waltraut and Hawamdeh, Suliman (ed) Managing Knowledge for Global and Collaborative Innovations, World Scientific Publishing Co., 2009: 1-14.
52. OECD. “Symposium on Assessing the Economic Impact of Nanotechnology.” Synthesis Report OECD/NNI, September 2013.
53. Oh, Jun-Byoung, and Park, Changsuh. “Responses of Incumbents to Patent Enforcement: An Examination of the Korean Case.” Seoul Journal of Economics Vol. 26 (No. 1 2013): 73-93.
54. Ozcan, Sercan, and Islam, Nazrul. “Patent information retrieval: approaching a method and analysis nanotechnology patent collaborations.” Scientometrics (No. 111 2017): 941-970.
55. Pérez, Carlota. “Technological revolutions and techno-economic paradigms.” Cambridge Journal of Economics 34 (No. 1 2010): 185-202.
56. Pilat, Dirk, Ahmad, Nadim, and Schreyer, Paul. “Measuring ICT diffusion in OCDE countries.” Économie Internationale (No. 98 2004): 11-34.
57. Prasad, Ram, Kumar, Manoj, and Kumar, Vivek (eds). Nanotechnology. An Agricultural Paradigm. Singapore: Springer Singapore, 2017.
58. Roco, Mihail C. Bainbridge, William. S., Tonn, Bruce, and Whitesides, Georges. Convergence in knowledge, technology and society: beyond convergence of nano-bio-info cognitive technologies. Cham: Springer, 2013.
59. Rogers, Everett. M. Diffusion of Innovations. New York: Free Press, 2003.
60. Shin, Mattew. D., Shukla Sourabh, Chung Young. H., Beiss Veronique, Chan Soo K., Ortega-Rivera, Oscar, Wirth David M., Chen, Angela, Sack Markus, Pokorski, Jonathan K., and Steinmetz, Nicole F. “COVID-19 vaccine development and a potential nanomaterial path forward.” Nature Nanotechnology (No. 15 2020): 646-655.
61. Schmookler, Jacob. “Economic sources of inventive activity.” The Journal of Economic History 22 (No. 1 1962): 1-20.
62. Thompson, Peter. “Patent Citation and the Geography of Knowledge Spillovers: Evidence from Inventor- and Examiner-added Citations.” The Review of Economics and Statistics 88 (No. 2 2006): 383-388.
63. Thoma, Grid. “Quality and Value of Chinese Patenting: An International Perspective.” Seoul Journal of Economics 26 (No. 1 2013): 33-72.
64. Tong, Xuesong, and Frame, J. Davidson. “Measuring National Technological Performance with Patent Claims Data.” Research Policy Elsevier 23 (No. 2 1994):133-141.
65. Vence, Xavier. Economía de la innovación y el cambio tecnológico: una revision crítica, Madrid: Siglo XXI de España Editores S.A, 1995.
66. Wang, Lili, and Zexia Li. “Knowledge flows from public science to industrial technologies.” The Journal of Technology transfer (2019).
67. Woolley, Jennifer L., and Rottner, Renee M. “Innovation Policy and Nanotechnology Entrepreneurship.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 35 (No. 5 2008): 791-811.
68. World Economic and Social. Frontier technologies for sustainable development. New York: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2018.
69. Youtie, Jan, Porter, Alan, Shapira, Philip, and Newman, Nils. Lessons from Ten Years of Nanotechnology Bibliometric Analysis. Georgia Institute of Technology, 2016.
70. Yu, Guang, Wang, Ming-Yang, and Yu, Da-Ren. “Characterizing knowledge diffusion of Nanoscience & Nanotechnology by citation analysis.” Scientometrics 84 (No. 1 2010): 81-97.
71. Zingg, Raphael, and Fischer, Marius. “The rise of private-public collaboration in nanotechnology.” Nano Today 25 (2019): 7-9.